NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English. Here are all the answer of dled assignment course-502. I hope this can help you through your assignment.
Course-502: Pedagogic Processes in Elementary Schools
Assignment – I
Note : Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words.
Q1. Explain with suitable examples of four processes of observational learning. How
does imitation help in observational learning.
Ans. Learning from observation is a common and natural method of learning human. Learning overview is a type of learning that occurs in the form of the task of seeing, maintaining and repeating the novel behavior performed by others. While acquiring basic tasks such as language and cultural norms, observational education is an important learning method for children. Learning through observation is not the exact reproduction of the model’s behavior but rather to develop behavior based on observed behavior. According to Bandra, there are various procedures involved in learning the following observations:
(1) Meditation process: We do not mimic the total behavior of the model … but rather we focus on the specific which we want to learn. We pay attention to the important features of the behavior that we want to learn. For example, a child writing in good handwriting looks at his teacher and eagerly sees that he is wearing pen, taking his fingers, where he is using capital letters and meditation on the teacher Does not give up or how he / she moves
(2) Retention process: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be influenced by many factors, but it is important to learn the observation of ability to pull information and act on it later. We need to remember the things that are celebrated in any way by using symbols, understanding and organizing our observations. Normally, we employ two processes for retention, i.e. storing and exercising. To store things seen in our memory as scenes and then practice mentally as a sequence of actions. For example, if someone is trying to bowl like Zaheer Khan, then he should practice the sequence of Zaheer’s bowling actions mentally after seeing him personally or in a TV broadcast and after creating a visual image of the work . Bandura (1977) shows that the best way to learn from the model is to organize and practice the behavior of cognitively (with proper thinking) practice and then it has to be done.
(3) Motor reproduction process: After maintaining observed behavior through the rehearsal of visual images, the behavior should be converted into physiological functions. For this, someone needs two things. First of all, it must have basic requirements for the tasks it performs. If someone wants to be a batsman like Tendulkar, then the basic requirement is the physical ability of the batsman. If someone is very weak, it does not matter how much the practice is done of Tendulkar’s batting sequence, no one will be able to perform because it is difficult to lift the bat and bat in the same way.
The second aspect to change the observed behavior into action is to actually practice the sequence of actions. An ideal visual imagery and mental practice of action will not help the supervisor to do the job automatically. Repeated exercises with a constant reaction on practice to perform effectively and proper rectification after each exercise is necessary.
(4) Motivational process: We have come in some children who have learned very well through learning about observation because they can clearly describe the steps of action and can do it completely. But often, they do not perform when necessary. In such cases, the deficiency they have is appropriate motivation to do the work. The child should be encouraged to be especially motivated. Impact of simulation in observation learning: In a superficial way, the simulation is just copying the behavior of one model. There are three categories of simulation behavior: Modeling effect, blocking dissatisfaction effects, and eliciting effects, which are helpful in learning overview:
(1) Modeling effect: Seeing the model involves acquiring new behavior in it.
(2) Blocking effect: Generally, in order to get involved in the same behavior, it is concerned with the suppression of the distracted behavior of the model as a result of seeing the punished model. The dissatisfaction effect is the opposite. This happens when a child sees the model engaged in controversial behavior beforehand who has been rewarded for it.
(3) Elite effects: It is related to the model’s reactions which are not for its practical characteristics. An example of eliciting effect is mass behavior. In any sporting event, a person’s inclination or booing can get similar behavior from others in the crowd. Occasionally, many people in the crowd do not know how they behave, how they behave.
A teacher can use the simulation in the classroom / school to get students positive and socially desirable behavior in the following ways:
- A teacher should demonstrate the positive aspects of the behavior of his students. Impact on students to imitate the positive practices of teachers such as cleanliness, timeliness, truth and impartiality. Even so, their students should not expose their weaknesses.
- While saying stories to history, social science, literature and children, they should always highlight the positive aspects of the characters important to imitate the students.
- When a student imitates positive behavior, then the teacher should try to recognize it and provide oral appreciation so that it can be encouraged to repeat.
Compare the subject-centred approach and competency-based approach. Write any two advantages and limitations of these approaches.
Ans. The comparison between subject-centric approach and qualification-based approach is as follows:
Subject-centric approach- This approach focuses on the delivery of subject matter by the teacher to the students, ie the importance of topics / concepts involved in the subject, around which all the teaching and activities revolve around.
In most schools, this is a common practice. These schools follow both courses and textbooks for teaching and learning. In this subject, the textbook is considered as a repository of all the necessary concepts, examples and practices which are necessary for the teaching-learning process. The means and methods of acquiring prescribed concepts can be anything.
The various features of the theme-oriented approach are as follows:
(1) Real life situations are rarely kept in mind while presenting subject matter in the classroom.
(2) Focus is on content / subject matter, and therefore the textbook transactions in the classroom are all ‘everything else’ of the activities of the classroom.
(3) All class interaction textbooks are centered.
(4) The teacher presents himself as a model for the students because he has expertise on the subject matter.
(5) Questions related to the evaluation are used, in which there is a lack of variety.
(6) The need to learn these students should be fulfilled through the textbook.
(7) Instead of quality, there is tension on quantum-oriented production.
Qualification-based approach- The skills, knowledge, attitude and behavior required for the effective performance of reality work or activity is essential. Qualifications are necessary skills that need to be a successful learner. Eligibility is a skill used for a specific standard under specific circumstances. In its most common form, a “merit” is any underlying feature in which one person has it and it is used, which leads to successful performance. It is a clearly defined and scalable activity (group of related knowledge and skills) completed by a person. On the other hand, a skill is referred to a group of tasks performed at a specific level of a task or group, which often uses motor functions and usually requires the manipulation of equipment and equipment. However, there are some skills such as ‘right and quick to add’ and ‘appreciating the need for systematic behavior at home, school and public places’ are knowledge-based and approach-based.
Benefits of a topic-focused approach:
(1) Urge students to memorize facts by reading again and again.
(2) They can produce their answers either verbally or in writing by reproducing the exact content.
Limits of subject-oriented approach:
(1) Real life situations are rarely kept in mind while presenting subject matter in the classroom.
(2) The students answer the questions both verbally and in writing, by copying it from the book.
Benefits of a Qualified-Based Approach:
(1) The results for further improvement of students can be evaluated. Remedial coaching is helpful for low recipients and enhancement programs for high recipients. Since, its purpose is the goal of the skill of each person by skill, it meets the learning requirements of all categories of students.
(2) Students who learn today can not be forgotten tomorrow because students are trained by the students under guidance.
Limitations of eligibility-based approach:
(1) Learning speed varies from student to student, so it is very difficult to help the students achieve competencies within the stipulated time in the part of the teacher.
(2) Content knowledge of students is very important to help students achieve competencies. If the teacher is not skilled, then the approach can not work.
Q 2. Write the characteristics of Project method. What are its advantages and limitations?
Ans. The project method is based on the idea that experience leads to learning. Therefore, learners need to explore their environment, use objects in their environment, and thus, instead of listening to someone else’s experience in any other environment as described by the teachers, they have to learn from direct experiences. Thus, learning through this method is relevant and meaningful; And on the basis of the interests and abilities of the learners. Projects can be assigned to individuals or groups. The various features of the project method are as follows:
(1) Activity: A teacher is required to create a learning environment where students start learning through self-planning, group discussions and group activities.
(2) Utility: It is necessary that the project needs are useful for current needs.
(3) Democratic value: Assessing characteristics like working in a group, cooperating with one another, respecting each other, accepting opinions of others, taking responsibility and sharing responsibility, towards the development of democratic values to take. According to Kilpatrick, this is the best method in a democracy.
(4) Problematic: While starting to work on any project, students intend to solve at least one problem.
(5) Purpose: With the objectives that students pursue the project, they are closely linked to their real life circumstances and will fulfill some of their desires.
(6) Integration: Since a project is based on real-life problems, therefore, real knowledge and real experience not only involves knowledge of one subject in order to complete the project. For successful completion of the project, one has to appropriately add knowledge of many disciplines. Integration of topics learned in the classroom is a fundamental requirement in the work of a project.
(7) Liberty: In the project method, learning is naturally occurring. So, students perform activities independently.
(8) Reality: It is essential to create real-life activities for effective learning. The benefits of the project method are as follows:
(1) The student gets the scope to influence the work of the project and many social properties like teamwork, group relations and sacrifice.
(2) Since all activities of a project are related to real life experiences, therefore each such activity is worthwhile for the student. Therefore, meaningful learning is always linked to the project method.
(3) Completing the project gives individuals a sense of achievement, which in turn encourages the student to learn further.
(4) Students enjoy complete independence in organizing a project. It develops self-confidence to do this work and also promotes the spirit of responsibilities among the students.
(5) The project method is based on the principles of active education. The student is fully involved in the activity, which helps in enhancing his knowledge, understanding and skill in real life and at the end to develop overall personality.
(6) Interest and motivation for project activities has been created automatically and there is no external motivation or force required to attract students towards learning.
(7) The student gets acquainted with the type of future work which is expected to perform in the future. Thus, the project method helps the students in their preparation for future life.
The limitations of the project method are:
(1) It is not always possible to employ it in all subject areas of the course.
(2) It is difficult for an average teacher to plan a project and ensure the participation of all students in it.
(3) There is a lack of proper coordination in the experience / knowledge gained through the project method.
What are the main qualities of an activity? Why memorisation is not considered as an activity?
Ans. The main features of effective learning activity are as follows:
- Seamless participation: A good activity is such that when it starts, it instantly attracts students and they are involved in their own interest without any motivation or strength.
- Focusing: Learning activity is always directed towards the goal and it is designed so that participating students are focused to solve the problem or reach the goal and are not easily distracted.
- Happy: The effectiveness of the activity is tested when the student receives a sense of satisfaction after it is completed. The nature of a good activity is that it is interesting to conduct students and it brings a feeling of achievement, provides happiness, which ultimately becomes a source of internal inspiration for students to go for next activity, which is more May be challenging.
- Challenging: An effective activity in front of students becomes a challenge. It is very difficult to neither neglect nor try to solve. It is a minor problem which is within the ability to solve students but with concentration and with a little more effort.
The memorial is not considered as an activity, because memorable is a way of mechanical repetition, in which there is no one of the four characteristics of activity.
NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English
Note: Answer the following questions in about 500 words.
Q1. How do you plan to organise your classroom space to make it learner friendly?
In a teaching-teaching classroom, a teacher should be managed properly in place of the class. An organized class inspires students to learn. Some components of the classroom will be planned to be arranged for the optimum use of classroom class, as given below:
(1) Wall and bulletin board: The wall and bulletin board can make the classroom lively and attractive and can contribute greatly to the student’s independence and achievement.
When we think about the wall and the bulletin boards in the classroom, then we will consider the following points:
(A) When we use student assignments, charts / projects, we will definitely make sure to reserve the principal visibility for each student’s obvious visibility.
(B) We will attract or paint grade specific activities on the wall so that students can learn and learn these activities individually or in groups.
(C) We will nominate the place in which high quality students will have some examples of work.
(D) We will place some of the wall which can remain deliberately empty. We will use this area to create a workplace for students.
(E) We will try to find the Wall Space, bulletin board space, where we and students can keep objects or materials individually interesting.
In addition to the basics of furniture arrangement, wall space and bulletin board, we will prepare a rich classroom environment. The walls of the classroom can be covered with many lists such as appearance, color chart, list of words, songs, riddles, daily routines, various types of activities, etc. A message board can be placed in a prominent place where the class and students can write messages to each other. We will establish a special bookshelf for storybooks, big books, comic books and reference books. Paint the wall with various activities, which are related to the contents / competencies of a particular class. Through these wall activities, the students will discuss themselves among the group and learn from each other. Many times, these wall activities also promote self-reliance.
(2) Learning materials: As a fair use of furniture, we will use floor and wall spaces help to facilitate learners’ interest in learning activities. Careful planning for placement of learning materials can also help in achieving these goals. When we think about arranging learning materials in the classroom, we will consider the following:
(A) Instead of spreading on tables or shelves, we will use the boxes to keep the order systematically organized.
(B) We will store those materials which will be used often (such as books, paper, pencil, eraser, color pencil and laboratory equipment) in places where students can easily access them. Learning materials which students can be used less in remote areas of the room.
(C) We will designate and label locations in the room where students will keep their completed worksheets. In primary classes, where the teacher teaches many subjects, it understands that there are different boxes or trays for each subject. So we will make different places for them and use icons or color codes to help students keep their work if they are just learning to read (for example, class 1 student).
(D) Content, which we only require, we will keep it in the least accessible area.
(3) Class furniture and floor space: In primary school classes, students sit on the floor and on the bench in some cases. Based on the available location and nature of the activity, we can use the arrangements of various meetings, e.g. Linear lines, semi-circle, circle, face-to-face, etc. We will organize all the furniture in the room and arrange such meetings in such a way that students can be comfortably transferred to the room and we can easily reach everyone as a student and when necessary. Students are required to feel the personal attention of a teacher and to inspect the students separately while engaging in activities.
We will keep an important part of the room for shelves, almirahs or other furniture where we can keep different types of TLM.
Describe the different approaches of categorising TLM with examples.
There are different approaches to classification of teaching-learning materials:
(1) Real objects / experience: Students get first hand experience by using direct objects, individuals and events around them. However, the possession of objects can not lead to learning. During the teaching of the teachers, students should try to show the real objects, so that they can get a direct experience of the objects in terms of those concepts which they hope to learn. But for the reasons below, it is not always possible to bring the actual objects into the classroom.
(A) Size of the object: To move or store in the classroom, too small to be seen in size or very small by students.
(B) Safety: If dangerous, then species such as snakes, scorpions etc. should be brought into orbit or affect the safety of the students.
(C) Cost: Objects can be very expensive for the use of classes.
In teaching classes in lower classes and science in higher classes, students can be given many direct experiences for effective understanding. Children get direct experience from many objects or places like watching flowers, leaves, plants, insects; Wandering in the forest and gathering useful forest products; Panchayat offices, banks, post offices are going to different organizations and inspect their activities; Establishment and Maintenance of an Aquarium Direct and concrete experiences help students understand difficult concepts. Therefore, efforts should be made to give students as many experiences
(2) Prepared TLM: Teachers are familiar with specially prepared material for teaching and learning specific topics or topics. Maps, charts, pictures, models, toys, stones, colorful rods, flash cards, numbers and alphabet cards are examples of some of the most common prepared TLMs used and used by teachers. For the requirements of our class, we obtain these materials in two ways: (i) Buying from the market, and (ii) self-development or sometimes involving students.
Standard TLM such as maps, globe, charts, scale, measuring tapes are usually bought from the market. The cost of materials differs according to their quality. Since most of these materials are manufactured and the product ends, therefore they look better and are comparatively more durable. Because of this, teachers everywhere like to buy them.
Teachers not only buy ready products like maps, charts, pictures etc. from the market for use as TLM, but also to develop / prepare TLM content such as drawing sheets, sketch pens, paint materials, gum, scissors, rulers etc. Buy. By myself and students participation
But even then the teachers develop TLM when they are available in the market because they can not afford to buy their essential ingredients and sometimes the special classes they are required in their classrooms are not readily available in the market. . This can include charts with labels, diagrams with specific labels, etc.
Such typical diagrams or images, which teachers and their students need, can not be available in the market. Often, they need less effort to prepare TLMs, such as sketching on a paper a data or graphs graphically sketched on the data brought by the students. This type of prepared TLM has more relevance than the purchased readymade content. Apart from this, if they are joining students to develop TLM, they are looking at their pleasure while working in such activities. More importantly, in the process of planning and preparing TLM for use in classes, the students are getting concepts with a reasonable understanding and without
Instructions or hardness of remembering
In addition, on the basis of sensory experience, TLM can be classified as follows:
(1) Audio AIDS: They refer to AIDS, which call upon hearing senses, and thus, help learners learn through listening. For example, radio, tape recorder, audio cassette player, language lab, etc.
(2) Visual aids: They refer to AIDS, which call the senses on the senses, and thus, helping learners learn through seeing. Under this head are important AIDS charts, blackboards, maps, pictures, models, textbooks, slide projectors, transparency, flash cards, print materials etc.
(3) Audiovisual AIDS: They refer to AIDS, which call those devices or materials that require hearing and visual senses and help students learn through listening and viewing. Examples of this head include TV, Computer, VCD Player, Virtual Classroom, Multimedia and other computer-supported instructions.
Apart from these, another classification of TLM is based on:
(1) Project-Aids: Includes movies, magic lanterns, micro projectors and overhead projectors, LCD projectors etc.
(2) Non-project-aids: These include Chalk Board, Feel Board, Bulletin Board, Photo, Poster, Map, Chart, Globe, Samples, Textbook Pictures etc.
(3) Experienced Assistants: These include field trips, educational tours, visits to important institutions and industries, visits, experiments, demonstrations and natural events.
Q.2 What are the advantages and limitations of computer assisted learning in the classroom?
Ans. The benefits of learning computer support in the classroom are as follows:
(1) Cal is personal, that each student is free to work in his own place, is completely unaffected by the performance of any other students.
(2) Information is presented in a structured form. It is useful in the study of a subject where the hierarchy of facts and rules is done.
(3) Cal compels active participation in the part of the student, who contrasts with a more inactive role in reading a book or attending lectures.
(4) Cal uses a reporting system that provides a clear picture of its progress to the student. Thus, students can identify the subject areas in which they have improved and in which they need improvement.
(5) By enabling students to compromise the concepts directly and find out the results of such manipulation, it reduces time to understand difficult concepts.
(6) Cal provides drilling which can prove to be useful for students with low eligibility and through which high-qualified students can escape.
(7) Cal can increase logic and decision-making capabilities.
The limitations of computer assistant education in class are as follows:
(1) The CL package can not meet the teachers’ expectations. Objectives and methods set by the Cal Author and teacher can vary.
(2) It is a challenging task to motivate and train teachers to use computers in education. They may be scared of this new device. They may not be willing to spend extra time preparing, selecting and using the Cal package. It can also be considered as a threat to your work.
(3) There are administrative problems related to computer installation. Especially the problems related to the physical location of computer resources, hardware maintenance and insurance and scheduling costs.
(4) The rapid development of the hardware makes it difficult to select the system before it becomes obsolete. If a new system is established by the maximum number of institutions, then they can not get the necessary courseware for the system and so far the developed courseware can be useless.
(5) Computer can be very expensive to provide and maintain. It is difficult or impossible for many schools to provide this resource for students. If only a limited number of computers are available, then students may have to share them among the small groups, which can reduce the potential benefits of learning the computer.
(6) The material covered by a certain Cal package may be outdated. The development of these packages involves a lot of cost. If the course is outdated, resources involved in its development will be waste.
(7) Although simulation allows the execution of chemical and biological experiments, the hand-son experience is missing. Apart from this, the CL package can not develop manual skills such as handling a device, working with machine etc.
NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English
Note: Answer the following question in about 1000 words.
Q.1 Suppose you are teaching in a tribal dominated school. You do not know the mother tongue of those children. How can you organise activities that children will learn?
A tribe is a group of specific people, which depend on their land for their livelihood, which are largely self-sufficient, and are not integrated into the national society. Since independence, many efforts have been made for the mainstream of tribal people for overall development. Yet the problem of tribal people continues to be a matter of concern. Children of Scheduled Tribes often face difficulties in learning due to their social, ethnic, economic and cultural differences. As a teacher in tribal dominated school, we will organize the following activities which children will learn:
Learning cultural knowledge from the community: First of all, we will learn the knowledge of the child’s community. That’s why we will identify ourselves with the community of students and talk to the people of the community, will discuss with them on various socio-cultural environments and participate in festivals in the community.
Use mother tongue as a medium of instruction: If we experience a child in our 5-6 years of contact with their mother tongue, then in an unknown language, he can not understand anything that we say. For example: a Santali child in class I can understand ‘Alaha’ but not ‘house’, Meram ‘but’ goat ‘, not’ daka ‘but not rice. Although he can expand 5-10 sentences about his house (Alaha) in his mother tongue, but he can not understand a sentence about the house in foreign language for him. So we will use the mother language (home language) as the medium of instruction, not only to understand the concept of the child but also to self confidence.
Integrating local knowledge in learning learning process: A textbook can not contain all local knowledge from different regions of the state or country. We will start with local knowledge to teach each concept and connect them with textbook knowledge. For example: If we have to teach ‘mathematical unit’ in mathematics, then we will start with those non-standard units which are used in day-to-day life like Sero, Mana, Paana, Saying etc. After this we will teach standard units of measurement like KG, Kms, Liters etc.
Using socio-cultural components in the learning-learning process: A community has its own lifestyle, its social values, socio-political organization and religious beliefs. They have their own food habits, clothes and jewelry, agriculture and industry. They have knowledge on every aspect of life and for facilitating learning, it is necessary to keep this base knowledge in mind. Therefore, we will provide more knowledge based on our cultural elements.
Using public materials in classroom learning: There are folk tales, songs, riddles, painting and painting, puzzles, etc. of each community. During the convenience of learning, these materials can be used in their full potential, because these materials not only facilitate easy and meaningful acquisition, but also the learning process, but also make learning process pleasant.
Adoption of textbook with socio-cultural knowledge: Adaptation of textbooks, bringing social-cultural elements in the textbooks textbooks and preparing alternative lessons wherever necessary for children’s experienced education.
Learning by the teacher for the mother tongue of the children: If a teacher knows the mother tongue of children, then its work will be easy, even if it is difficult for every child to learn the language. That’s why we will learn the language to talk to children’s family and community in their language.
Incorporate communities in school activities: A good teacher always uses community resources. Community participation in school management and classroom activities brings positive change in children’s performance in school. A community member can be involved to teach local arts and crafts, songs and music, facts and stories, and other good practices of the community.
Q. Consider that there are few CWSN children in your classroom, as a teacher how can you take care of such children in the classroom for facilitating their learning?
A group which becomes a very important part of the equity issue at the primary level is the Special Needs Children (CWSN). Some children in the classroom may be associated with deficiencies such as loco-motor disability, visual disorders, hearing impairment, low level of intellectual functioning, and adaptive behavior. As a teacher, we have to deal with these children to improve our learning and performance with other children in the classroom. The key points, which we should take care of children with disabilities during class transactions, are as follows:
(1) In the classroom, due to inefficiency, suitable adjustment can be done in the seating arrangement. This arrangement requires that the child not become a physical obstacle.
(2) We should accept such children in the classroom so that no serious comment should be given on their disability in the classroom.
(3) In evaluating the performance of these children, especially for grading or marking, their disability should be given an appropriate consideration.
(4) Children with such disabilities should be involved in all learning activities in the form of equal companions with their partners. It can be ensured that they have enough opportunities to take part.
(i) We will provide the following types of assistance for the education of visually impaired children:
(1) Provide training in training with understanding to reduce the weight of reading on the child with visual problems;
(2) Adjust such children to the front rows so that they can easily read from the blackboard;
(3) They provide opportunities to participate in physical education programmers and in partial a book stand can be arranged for children;
(4) Provide timetables for a radio broadcast and encourage them to listen and audio cassettes can be used wherever facilities are available; And
(5) Write in bold letters which are explicit and read widely on what they are writing on the blackboard.
(ii) We will keep the following for meeting the educational needs of children with hearing and speech reduction:
(1) When displaying the model or reading from the textbook, we will ensure that our lip movement is visible to such children so that they can supplement lipading.
(2) If speech disorder is due to organic defects in the speech mechanism, then medical aid is required. Speech defects speaking through speech training using reinforced drill and practice can be corrected through speech training.
(3) Children with hearing problems should sit in the front row so that they can easily talk about what a teacher speaks.
(4) While speaking and writing together on the blackboard, we should face students rather than competing against the Blackboard. For this reason, we can avoid moving forward while speaking.
(5) Individual views, individually or in groups, can be used to complement general teaching inputs.
(6) Colleagues can be encouraged to interact with these children and help each other in listening.
(7) When speaking, we need to use the appropriate level of pitch. We should avoid leaning and speaking too fast.
NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English
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