NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English. Here are all the answer of dled assignment course-502. I hope this can help you through your assignment.
Course-502: Pedagogic Processes in Elementary Schools
Assignment – I
Note : Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words.
Q1. Explain with suitable examples of four processes of observational learning. How
does imitation help in observational learning.
Ans. Learning from observation is a common and natural method of human learning. Observational learning is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others. Observational learning is a key learning method for children when acquiring basic tasks such as language and cultural norms. Learning through observation is not exact reproduction of the model’s behavior but developing behavior based on the observed behavior. According to Bandura, following are the distinct processes involved in observational learning:
(1) Attention Process: We do not imitate the total behavioral of a model….rather we focus on specific that we are interested to learn. We pay attention to significant features of the behavior we want to learn. For example, a child learning to write in good handwriting watches her teacher and keenly observe the way s/he is holding the pen, moving his/her fingers, where s/he is using capital letters and does not pay attention to how the teacher is dressed or hows/he walks.
(2) Retention Process: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. We need to remember the things observed through some way of using symbols, understanding and organising our observations. Usually, we employ two processes for retention, i.e. storing and rehearsing. Storing the things observed as visuals in our memory and then rehearsing as the sequence of actions mentally. For example, if anyone is trying to bowl like Zahir Khan, then s/he should mentally rehearse the sequences of the bowling actions of Zahir after observing him in person or in TV telecasts and forming a visual image of the actions. Bandura (1977) suggests that the best way to learn from a model is to organize and rehearse the observed behaviour cognitively (mentally with proper thinking) and then act it out.
(3) Motor Reproduction Process: After we have retained the observed behaviour through rehearsal of the visual images, the behaviour has to be transformed into physical actions. For this, one needs two things. First, s/he must have basic requirements for the action to be performed by him/her. If one desires to be a batsman like Tendulkar, the basic requirement is the physical capability of a batsman. If one is too weak, no matter how perfectly one rehearses the sequences of batting of Tendulkar, one will not be able to perform because it would be difficult to lift and move the bat in the same manner.
The second aspect for transforming the observed behaviour to action is to actually practice the sequence of actions. Having a perfect visual imagery and mental rehearsal of the actions will not help the observer to perform the act spontaneously. To perform effectively, repeated practice combined with continuous feedback on practice and making appropriate corrections after each practice are necessary.
(4) Motivational Process: We have come across some children who have learnt very well through observational learning as they can vividly describe the steps of action and can perform it perfectly. But often, they do not perform as and when required. In such cases, what they lack is proper motivation to act. The child is required to be motivated especially self-motivated to act. Effects of imitation in observational learning: Superficially, imitation is merely copying the behaviour of a model. There are three categories of imitative behaviour: the modelling effect, the inhibitory disinhibitory effect, and the eliciting effect, which are helpful in observational learning:
(1) The modelling effect: It involves acquiring new behaviour as a result of observing a model.
(2) The inhibitory effect: It is concerned with suppression of deviant behaviour of the model usually as a result of seeing the model punished for engaging in the same behaviour. The dis- inhibitory effect is the opposite of it. It occurs when a child observes the model engaged in the previously learnt deviant behaviour being rewarded for it.
(3) The eliciting effect: It is related to responses of the model not to his/her behavioural characteristics. An illustration of the eliciting effect is the mass behaviour. In any sporting event, one person’s clapping or booing might elicit similar behaviour from others in the crowd. Sometimes, many in the crowd do not know why they behaved in the way they imitated.
A teacher, can use imitation in the classroom/school for enabling students to acquire positive and socially desirable behaviour in the following way :
- A teacher should demonstrate positive aspects of his behaviour to his students. A teacher’s positive practices like cleanliness, punctuality, truthfulness, and fairness to all have immense impact on the students to imitate. Nevertheless, should not expose his weaknesses to his students.
- While teaching history, social science, literature and telling stories to children, he should
always highlight the positive aspects of the important characters for imitation by the students.
- When any student imitates positive behaviour, teacher should try to recognize it and provide verbal praise encouraging him/her to repeat it.
Compare the subject-centred approach and competency-based approach. Write any two advantages and limitations of these approaches.
Ans. Comparison between the subject-centred approach and competency-based approach is as follows :
Subject-centred approach- This approach focuses on the delivery of the subject contents by the teacher for students to acquire, i.e. importance is laid on topics/concepts included in the subject, around which all the teaching and activities revolve.
In most of the schools, it is a common practice. These schools follow the syllabus and textbooks both for teaching and learning. The textbook in the subject is considered as the storehouse of all the required concepts, examples and exercises that are required for the teaching-learning process. The means and methods of acquisition of the prescribed concepts may be anything.
Various characteristics of subject-centered approach are as follows:
(1) Real life situations are rarely taken into account while presenting the subject matters in the classroom.
(2) The focus is on the content /subject matter, and hence, transaction of the textbooks in the class is ‘be all and end all’ of the classroom activities.
(3) All classroom interactions are textbook centered.
(4) The teacher projects himself as a model for the students as s/he has the mastery over the subject matter.
(5) Textual questions are used for evaluation, which lacks variety.
(6) The learning needs of these students are supposed to be fulfilled through the textbook.
(7) There is stress on quantity oriented output rather than quality.
Competency-based approach- Competency is the essential skill, knowledge, attitude and behavior required for effective performance of a real-world task or activity. Competencies are essential skills that one needs to be a successful learner. Competency is a skill performed to a specific standard under specific conditions. A “competency” in its most generic form is any underlying characteristic an individual possesses and uses, which leads to successful performance. It is a clearly defined and measurable activity (cluster of related knowledge and skill) accomplished by an individual. On the other hand, a skill is referred to a task or group of tasks performed to a specific level of proficiency, which often use motor functions and typically require the manipulation of instruments and equipment. However, some skills like ‘adding correctly and quickly’ and ‘appreciating the need for orderly behaviour at home, school and public places’ are knowledge-and attitude-based.
Advantages of subject-centred approach :
(1) Insistence on the students to memorize the facts by repeated reading.
(2) They may produce their answers orally or in written form by reproducing the exact content.
Limitations of subject-centred approach :
(1) Real life situations are rarely taken into account while presenting the subject matters in the classroom.
(2) The students answer the questions both orally and in written form by copying from the book.
Advantages of competency-based approach :
(1) The assessment of results can be used for further improvement of the students. Remedial coaching is helpful for the low achievers and enrichment programme for the high achievers. Since, it aims at mastery of skills by each individual, it caters to the learning needs of all categories of students.
(2) What the students learn today cannot be forgotten tomorrow as competencies are achieved by the students at the level of mastery under the guidance of a teacher.
Limitations of competency-based approach :
(1) As pace of learning varies from student to student, it is very difficult on the part of the teacher to help the students to achieve the competencies within the stipulated time.
(2) The content knowledge of the teacher is very important to help the students achieve the competencies. If the teacher is not proficient, the approach may not work.
Q 2. Write the characteristics of Project method. What are its advantages and limitations?
Ans. Project method is based on the view that experiences lead to learning. Hence, learners need to explore their environment, manipulate objects in their environment, and thus, learn from direct experiences instead of hearing someone else’s experiences in some other environment, narrated by teachers. Thus, learning through this method is relevant and meaningful; and based on interests and abilities of learners. Projects may be assigned to individuals or to groups. Following are the various characteristics of project method:
(1) Activity: A teacher is required to create a learning environment where students begin to learn through self-planning, group discussion and group activities.
(2) Utility: It is essential that the project method must be useful to the present needs.
(3) Democratic values: Inculcation of characteristics like working in a group,cooperate with each other, respect each other, value others opinion, assume and share responsibility, lead to development of democratic values. According to Kilpatrick, this is the best method in a democracy.
(4) Problematic: While beginning to work on any project, students are intended to solve at least one problem.
(5) Objective: The objectives with which the students pursue the project are intimately associated with their real life situations and would be fulfilling some of their cherished desires.
(6) Integration: Since a project is based on the real life problems, real experiences for carrying out the project and no real experience involves the knowledge of only one subject. One has to combine the knowledge of many subjects appropriately for successful completion of the project. Integration of subjects learnt in the classroom is the basic requirement in a project work.
(7) Liberty: In Project Method, learning takes place naturally. So, students perform activities freely.
(8) Reality: It is necessary to create real life activities for effective learning. Advantages of project method are as follows:
(1) The student gets the scope to imbibe several social qualities like cooperation and teamwork, group affinity and sacrifice through project work.
(2) Since all the activities of a project are related to the real life experiences, each of such activities is meaningful to the student. Therefore, meaningful learning is always associated with the project method.
(3) Completion of the project gives individuals a sense of accomplishment, which in turn, encourages the student for further learning.
(4) The student enjoys full freedom in conducting a project. This develops selfconfidence to act and also promotes a sense of responsibilities among the students.
(5) The project method is based on the principles of active learning. The student gets totally involved in the activity which helps in enhancing his/her knowledge, understanding and skills in real life situation and ultimately in developing a holistic personality.
(6) Interest and motivation for the project activities are spontaneously created and no external persuasion or force is needed to attract the students towards learning.
(7) The student gets acquainted with the types of work which s/he is expected to perform in future. Thus, the project method helps the student in his/her preparation for a future life.
Following are the limitations of the project method:
(1) It is not always possible to employ it in all subject areas of the curriculum.
(2) It is difficult for an average teacher to plan a project and ensure the participation of all students in it.
(3) There is a lack of proper coordination in the experience/knowledge acquired through project method.
What are the main qualities of an activity? Why memorisation is not considered as an activity?
Ans. Following are the main qualities of an effective learning activity:
- Spontaneous Involvement: A good activity is such that it attracts the students immediately when it starts and they join in it out of their own interest without any persuasion or compulsion.
- Focused: Activity for learning is always goal directed and is so designed that the participating students are focused to solve the problem or reach the target and are not easily distracted.
- Joyful: The test of the efficacy of the activity is when the student derives a sense of satisfaction after its completion. The very nature of a good activity is that it is interesting for the students to conduct and it brings a sense of achievement, provides joy, which ultimately becomes the source of intrinsic motivation for the students to go for the next activity, which might be more challenging.
- Challenging: An effective activity poses a challenge before the students. It is neither too easy to neglect nor too difficult to attempt for solving. It is moderately difficult which is within the capability of the students to solve but with concentration and with a little more effort.
Memorization is not considered as an activity because memorization is a way of mechanical repetition which has none of the four characteristics of an activity.
NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English
Note: Answer the following questions in about 500 words.
Q1. How do you plan to organise your classroom space to make it learner friendly?
Ans. In a teaching-learning classroom, a teacher should manage classroom space appropriately. An organised classroom motivates students for learning. Some of the components of the classroom which we will plan to be organised to make optimum use of classroom space are given as follows:
(1) Wall space and Bulletin Boards: Wall space and bulletin boards can make a classroom lively and attractive and contribute considerably to student’s independence and achievement.
We will consider the following things when we thinks about wall space and bulletin boards in the classroom:
(a) When we use student assignments, charts/projects, we will be sure to reserve large ones in prominent place for clear visibility of every student.
(b) We will draw or paint grade specific activities on the wall, so that students can individually or in the groups do these activities and learn.
(c) We will designate the space that will contain few exemplars of high quality student work.
(d) We will keep some wall space that can intentionally remain blank. We will use this area to create a working space for students.
(e) We will try to find wall space, bulletin board space, where we and students can place objects or materials that are personally interesting.
In addition to the basics of furniture arrangement, wall space and bulletin boards, we will design a rich classroom environment. Classroom walls can be covered with many lists such as, a sign board for attendance, colour chart, list of words, songs, riddles, daily routine, different types of activities, etc. A message board can be placed in a prominent place of the classroom where we and the students can write messages to each other. We will set up a special bookshelf for storybooks, big books, comic books and reference books. Paint the wall with different activities, which are related to the contents/competencies of a particular class. Through these wall activities, students will discuss among themselves in groups and learn from each other. Many times, these wall activities also promote selflearning.
(2) Learning Materials: Just as the appropriate use of furniture, we will use of floor and wall spaces aid to facilitate learners’ interest in learning activities. A careful planning for placement of learning materials can also help in achieving these goals. We will consider the following when a we think about arranging learning materials in the classroom:
(a) We will use boxes to keep supplies neatly organised rather than spreading them out on tables or shelves.
(b) We will store materials that will be used often (e.g. books, paper, pencil, eraser, colour pencils and lab equipment) in places where students can access them easily. Learning materials that students will use less maybe kept in remote areas of the room.
(c) We will designate and label places in the room where students will keep their completed worksheet. In elementary classrooms, where the teacher teaches multiple subjects, it makes sense to have different boxes or trays for each subject. So we will make seperate space for these and will use icons or colour codes to help students for keeping their work if they are just learning how to read (for example; class 1 students).
(d) The materials, which we only need, we will be keep it in the least accessible area.
(3) Classroom’s Furniture and Floor Space: In the classrooms of primary schools, students sit on the floor and on benches in some cases. Depending on the space available and the nature of the activity, we may use different sitting arrangements, e.g. linear rows, semi-circle, circle, face-to-face, etc. we will arrange all furniture in the room and will make such sitting arrangement in such a way that the students can move in room comfortably and we also can easily reach every student as and when required. This is essential for students to feel the personal attention of a teacher and for him/her to observe students individually while they are engaged in the activities.
We will keep a significant portion of the room for shelves, almirah or other furniture where we can keep a variety of TLMs.
Describe the different approaches of categorising TLM with examples.
Ans. Different approaches of categorising of Teaching-Learning-Materials are:
(1) Real Objects/Experiences: By directly using real objects, persons and events around them, the students get first hand experiences. However, possession of objects may not lead to learning. Teachers must try to show the real objects to the students while teaching, so that they get direct experience of the objects with reference to the concept they are expected to learn. But for reasons given below, it is not always possible to bring the real objects to the classroom.
(a) Size of the object: Too large in size to carry or to store in the classroom or too small to be seen by the students.
(b) Safety: If dangerous, species like snake, scorpion, etc. are to be brought into the classroom could affect the safety of students.
(c) Cost: Objects can become too expensive for class use.
In teaching Environmental Studies in lower classes and Science in higher classes, many direct experiences can be given to the students for effective understanding. Children get direct experience from several objects or places existing in their immediate environment like observing real flowers, leaves, plants, insects; taking a walk in the forest and collecting useful forest products; going to different organisations like Panchayat Office, Bank, Post Office and observe their functioning; setting and maintaining an aquarium. Direct and concrete experiences help students understanding of difficult concepts. Hence, attempts ought to be made to give students as many experiences as
(2) Prepared TLM: Teachers are familiar with materials specifically prepared for teaching and learning particular subjects or topics. Maps, charts, pictures, models, toys, marbles, coloured sticks, flash cards, number and alphabet cards are examples of some of the most common prepared TLMs known and used by teachers. For our classroom requirements, we acquire these materials in two ways: (i) procuring from the market, and (ii) developing by ourselves or sometimes involving students.
Standard TLMs like maps, globes, charts, scales, measuring tapes are usually purchased from the market. The cost of the materials varies according to their quality. Since most of these materials are manufactured and are finished products, they have better look and are comparatively more durable. Due to this, the teachers everywhere prefer them to purchase.
Teachers not only purchase finished products like maps, charts, pictures, etc. from the market to use as TLMs but also purchase materials like drawing sheets, sketch pens, colouring materials, gum, scissor, ruler, etc. to develop/prepare TLMs by themselves and by the involvement of students.
But still teachers develop TLMs even when they are available in market because they cannot afford to purchase all the materials that they require and sometimes typical materials that they need in their classrooms are not readily available in the market. This may include labelled charts, some specific labelled diagrams, etc.
Such typical diagrams or pictures, which teachers and their students need, may not be available in the market. Very often, they need less effort to prepare TLMs like folding a paper with a shape or a diagram or graph sketched on the board on the data brought by students. Such prepared TLMs have more relevance than the purchased readymade materials. Further, if they are involving students in developing TLMs, they might be observing their pleasure while working in such activities. What is more important is that in the process of planning and preparing the TLMs for use in the classrooms, the students are acquiring concepts with proper understanding and without the
rigor of instruction or memorisation.
Further, on the basis of sensory experience, the TLMs can be categorised as follows:
(1) Audio Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the auditory senses, and thus, help the learners to learn through listening. For instance, radio, tape-recorder, audio cassette player, language laboratory, etc.
(2) Visual Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the visual senses, and thus, help the learners to learn through viewing. The important aids under this head are Chart, Blackboard, Maps, Pictures, Models, Textbooks, Slide projector, Transparency, Flash-cards, Print materials, etc.
(3) Audiovisual Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the devices or materials that require the auditory as well as visual senses and helping the students to learn through listening as well as viewing. Examples under this head include TV, Computer, VCD player, Virtual Classroom, Multimedia and other computer-assisted instruction materials.
Besides these, another classification of TLMs is based on the following:
(1) Projected-aids: These include movies, magic lantern, micro-projectors and projection with the overhead projectors, LCD projectors, etc.
(2) Non-projected-aids: These include chalk board, felt board, bulletin board, photographs, posters, maps, charts, globe, specimens, textbook illustrations, etc.
(3) Experiential aids: These include field trips, educational tours, visit to important institutions and industries, observing experiments, demonstrations and natural phenomena.
Q.2 What are the advantages and limitations of computer assisted learning in the classroom?
Ans. Following are the advantages of computer assisted learning in the classroom:
(1) CAL is individualised, that is each student is free to work at his own place, totally unaffected by the performance of any other students.
(2) Information is presented in a structured form. It proves useful in the study of a subject where there is hierarchy of facts and rules.
(3) CAL forces active participation on the part of the student, which contrasts with the more passive role in reading a book or attending a lecture.
(4) CAL utilises a reporting system that provides the student with a clear picture of his progress. Thus, students can identify the subject areas in which they have improved and in which they need improvement.
(5) By enabling students to manipulate concepts directly and explore the results of such manipulation, it reduces the time taken to comprehend difficult concepts.
(6) CAL provides a lot of drilling which can prove useful for low aptitude students and through which high-aptitude students can be escaped.
(7) CAL can enhance reasoning and decision-making abilities.
Limitations of computer assisted learning in the classroom are as follows:
(1) CAL packages may not fulfill expectations of teachers. Objectives and methods decided by the CAL author and of a teacher may differ.
(2) Motivating and training teachers to make use of computers in education is a challenging task. They may have fear of this new device. They may be unwilling to spend extra time for preparation, selection and use of CAL packages. It may also be perceived as a threat to their job.
(3) There are administrative problems associated with computer installation. The problems particularly related to the physical location of the computer resources, the cost of hardware maintenance and insurance and time-tabling.
(4) The rapid development of hardware makes it difficult to select a system before it becomes obsolete. If a new system is installed by a maximum number of institutions, they may not get courseware required for the system and courseware developed so far may become useless.
(5) Computers can be very expensive to provide and maintain. Many schools may find it difficult or impossible to provide this resource for students. If only limited numbers of computers are available, students may have to share them among small groups, which can undermine the potential benefits of computer learning.
(6) Content covered by a certain CAL package may become outdated. A very high cost is involved in the development of these packages. If the course is outdated, the resources involved in its development will be a waste.
(7) Though simulation permits execution of chemical and biological experiments, hand-son experience is missing. Moreover, CAL packages cannot develop manual skills such as handling an apparatus, working with a machine, etc.
NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English
Note: Answer the following question in about 1000 words.
Q.1 Suppose you are teaching in a tribal dominated school. You do not know the mother tongue of those children. How can you organise activities that children will learn?
Ans. A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. Since Independence, several efforts have been made for the overall development leading to the mainstreaming of tribal people. Still the problems of tribal people continue to be a matter of concern. Children of Scheduled Tribes often face difficulties in learning because of their social, ethnic, economic and cultural differences. As a teacher in a tribal dominated school, we will organise following activities that children will learn:
Learning cultural knowledge from the community: First we will learnthe knowledge of the child’s community. So we will identify ourselves with students’ community and will talk with the community people, discuss with them on different socio-cultural milieus and attend festivals in the community.
Using mother tongue as medium of instruction: If we teach a child having 5-6 years of exposure to his/her mother tongue in a language unknown to him/her, he/she may not understand anything that we say. For example: a Santali child in class I can understand ‘alah’ but not ‘house’, merom’ but not ‘goat’, ‘daka’ but not rice. Though he/she can elaborate 5-10 sentences about his/her house (alah) in his/her mother tongue but may not understand one sentence about house in a language foreign to him/her. So we will use of mother tongue (home language) as a medium of instruction not only makes the child understand the concept but also brings self confidence in him/her.
Integrating local knowledge in learning teaching process: No textbook can incorporate all the local knowledge from different areas of a state or a country. We will start with local knowledge to teach each concept and link them with the textbook knowledge. For example: If we have to teach ‘unit of measurement’ in mathematics then we will start with the non-standard units that are used in day to day life such as sero, mana, pana, kahana etc. After that we will teach the standard units of measurement like Kg, Km, Litre etc.
Using socio-cultural components in learning-teaching process: A community has its own life style, own social values, socio-political organization and religious beliefs. They have their own food habits, dress and ornaments, agriculture and industry. They have knowledge on every aspect of life and this base knowledge need to be taken into account to facilitate learning. So we will impart further knowledge based on their cultural elements.
Using folk materials in classroom learning: Every community has its folk stories, songs, riddles, drawing and painting, puzzles etc. While facilitating learning, these materials may be used in their full potentials because these materials not only facilitate for easy and meaningful acquisition of learning outcomes but also make the learning process pleasurable.
Adapting textbook with socio-cultural knowledge: Adapting the text book means, bringing the socio-cultural elements in the text of the text books and preparing alternative text wherever necessary for children’s experiential learning.
Learning of children’s mother tongue by the teacher: If a teacher knows children’s mother tongue, his/her job will be easier even though it is difficult to learn language of each child. Hence we will learn languages from children’s family and community to talk with them in their language.
Involving communities in school activities: A good teacher always uses the community resources. Community involvement in school management and classroom activities brings a positive change in the performance of children in the school. A community member can be involved to teach students local art and craft, songs and music, fables and stories, and other good practices of the community.
Q. Consider that there are few CWSN children in your classroom, as a teacher how can you take care of such children in the classroom for facilitating their learning?
Ans. A group that forms a very important part of equity issue at the elementary level is the Children with Special Needs (CWSN). There may be some children in the classroom with mild disabilities like loco-motor disability, visual impairment, hearing impairment, lower level of intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive behavior. As a teacher, we have to deal with these children to improve their learning and performance along with other children in the classroom. The key points, which we should take care of impaired children during a classroom transaction, are as follows:
(1) In classroom, suitable adjustments in view of the disability may be made in seating arrangements. The arrangement need to be such as not to create any physical hindrance to the child.
(2) We should accept such children in class ensuring that no critical comment on their disabilities is given by anybody in the class.
(3) In the assessment of performance of these children, particularly for grading or marking, their disability needs to be given due consideration.
(4) Children with such disability should be involved in all learning activities as an equal partner with his/her peers. It may be ensured that, they have adequate opportunities to participate in
(i) We will provide the following kind of help to the education of visually impaired children:
(1) provide training in listening with comprehension in order to reduce the reading load on the child with visual problems;
(2) adjust such children in front rows so that they can read from the blackboard with ease;
(3) provide opportunities to them for participation in physical education programmers and a book-stand may be arranged for the partially sighted children;
(4) provide time schedule for a radio broadcast and encouraged them to listen and wherever facilities are available, audio cassettes may be used; and
(5) write in bold letters which are legible and read aloud what s/he is writing on the blackboard.
(ii) We will keep the following to meet the educational needs of the children with hearing and speech impairment:
(1) While demonstrating model or reading from the textbook, we will ensure that our lip movements are visible to such children so that they may be able to supplement listening by lipreading.
(2) If speech disorder is due to an organic defect in the speech mechanism, medical help is required. Speech defects arising out of hearing problems can be corrected through speech training, using reinforced drill and practice.
(3) Children with hearing problems should be seated in the front row so that they can listen what a teacher speaks, with ease.
(4) While speaking and writing simultaneously on the blackboard, we should face the students rather than speak with face towards the blackboard. For the same reason, we may avoid moving while speaking.
(5) Additional visuals, individually or in groups, may be used to supplement general teaching input.
(6) Peers may be encouraged to interact with these children and help one another in listening.
(7) We are required to use a reasonable level of pitch while speaking. We should avoid mumbling and speaking too fast.
NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English